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Of the more than 32,000 sites recorded in Georgia state archaeological site files by the year 2000, fewer than 200 have evidence for a Paleoindian occupation. Sassaman, eds., The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1996).
These sites remain rare and, when found, should be protected.
In north Georgia a spruce/pine boreal forest was replaced by northern hardwoods (oak, hickory, beech, birch, and elm), which in turn gave way to modern plant communities. The Middle Paleoindian features smaller fluted points, unfluted lanceolate points, and fluted or unfluted points with broad blades and constricted haft (handle) elements, such as the Simpson and possibly the Cumberland and Suwannee least in the earliest stages of tool life, and a concave base that is ground on the lateral and basal margins and occasionally well thinned.
Southern Georgia had an oak-hickory hardwood canopy that may have been in place throughout much of the previous glacial cycle. Blade edges are frequently serrated and beveled, indicating extensive resharpening.
Later Paleoindian assemblages were dominated by numerous short-term camps and more expedient assemblages, composed of tools that were casually made, used, and discarded.
Formal, curated tools were less common, as was the use of high-quality stone, unless it happened to outcrop locally.
Several such moves may have occurred over the course of a year.
Some scholars accept evidence of Native American existence in the Americas back more than 25,000 years, while many others believe that people arrived later than that, perhaps as recently as 12,000 years ago.
LINK Our world, as we know it, was sculpted long ago by glaciers and the persistent forces of weather, the valley landscape is a diversity of river floodplain, steep and gentle valley walls, tributaries and their ravines, and upland plateaus, brings us to our quest to find our history.
Long before the white man set foot on American soil, the American Indians, or rather the Native Americans, had been living in America.
Their group ranges centered on stone quarries, shoals, or other particularly desirable environmental features.
Although it is known they were hunter-gatherers, it is not known whether their diet primarily consisted of large game animals or a wide array of plant and animal species.
The late glacial southeastern environment these first peoples encountered was markedly different from today's environment. People may have been present before the Early Paleoindian subperiod, but identifiable remains have not been found in the state, and their recognition anywhere in America is still in its infancy.